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walter benjamin: geschichtsphilosophische thesen, nr. 8

(Aus dem Nachlass, 1942)

 

"Die Tradition der Unterdrückten belehrt uns darüber, dass der 'Ausnahmezustand', in dem wir leben, die Regel ist. Wir müssen zu einem Begriff der Geschichte kommen, der dem entspricht. Dann wird uns als unsere Aufgabe die Herbeiführung des wirklichen Ausnahmezustands vor Augen stehen; und dadurch wird unsere Position im Kampf gegen den Faschismus sich verbessern. Dessen Chance besteht nicht zuletzt darin, dass die Gegner ihm im Namen des Fortschritts als einer historischen Norm begegnen. — Das Staunen darüber, dass die Dinge, die wir erleben, im zwanzigsten Jahrhundert "noch" möglich sind, ist kein philosophisches. Es steht nicht am Anfang einer Erkenntnis, es sei denn der, dass die Vorstellung von Geschichte, aus der es stammt, nicht zu halten ist."

Zitiert aus: Benjamin 1, S. 83

 

"Hegelianismus"

aus: Antony C. Sutton: Americas secret establishment (Sutton 4) / How The Order creates War and Revolution/ 1.II

>>(...) Throughout the last 200 years, since the rise of Kant in German philosophy, we can identify two conflicting 

systems of philosophy and so opposing ideas of the State, society and culture. In the U.S., the British 

Commonwealth and France, philosophy is based on the individual and the rights of the individual. Whereas in 

Germany from the time of Kant, through Fichte and Hegel up to 1945, the root philosophy has been universal 

brotherhood, rejection of individualism and general opposition to Western classical liberal thought in almost 

all its aspects. German idealism, as we noted in earlier volumes of this series, was the philosophical basis for 

the work of Karl Marx and the Left Hegelians as well as Bismarck, Hitler and the Right Hegelians. This is the 

paradox: that Hegel gave a theoretical basis not only to the most conservative of German movements, but also 

to most of the revolutionary movements of the 19th century. Both Marx and Hitler have their philosophical 

roots in Hegel. 

From the Hegelian system of political thought, alien to most of us in the West, stem such absurdities as the 

State seen as the "march of God through history," that the State is also God, that the only duty of a citizen is to 

serve God by serving the State, that the State is Absolute Reason, that a citizen can only find freedom by 

worship and utter obedience to the State. However, we also noted in How The Order Controls Education that 

Hegelian absurdities have thoroughly penetrated the U.S. educational system under pressure from such  

organizations as the National Education Association and major foundations. 

From this system of Hegelian philosophy comes the historical dialectic, i.e., that all historical events emerge 

from a conflict between opposing forces. These emerging events are above and different from the conflicting 

events. Any idea or implementation of an idea may be seen as THESIS. This thesis will encourage emergence of 

opposing forces, known as ANTITHESIS. The final outcome will be neither thesis nor antithesis, but a synthesis 

of the two forces in conflict.

Karl Marx, in Das Kapital, posed capitalism as thesis and communism as antithesis. What has been 

completely ignored by historians, including Marxists, is that any clash between these forces cannot lead to a 

society Which is either capitalist or communist but must lead to a society characterized by a synthesis of the two 

conflicting forces. The clash of opposites must in the Hegelian system bring about a society neither capitalist nor 

communist. Moreover, in the Hegelian scheme of events, this new synthesis will reflect the concept of the State 

as God and the individual as totally subordinate to an all powerful State. 

What then is the function of a Parliament or a Congress for Hegetians? These institutions are merely to allow 

individuals to feel that opinions have some value and to allow a government to take advantage of 

 whatever wisdom the "peasant" may accidentally demonstrate. As Hegel puts it: 

"By virtue of this participation, subjective liberty and conceit, with their general opinion, (individuals) can 

show themselves palpably efficacious and enjoy the satisfaction of feeling themselves to count for something." 

War, the organized conflict of nations for Hegelians, is only the visible outcome of the clash between ideas. 

As John Dewey, the Hegelian darling of the modern educational system, puts it: 

"War is the most effective preacher of the vanity of all merely finite interests, it puts an end to that selfish 

egoism of the individual by which he would claim his life and his property as his own or as his family's." (John 

Dewey, German Philosophy And Politics, p. 197) 

Of course, this war-promoting Dewey paragraph is conveniently forgotten by the National Education 

Association, which is today busy in :he "Peace Movement" - at precisely that time when a "peace" movement 

most aids the Hegelian Soviets. 

Above all, the Hegelian doctrine is the divine right of States rather than the divine right of kings. The State for 

Hegel and Hegelians is God on earth: 

"The march of God in history is the cause of the existence of states, their foundation is the power of Reason 

realizing itself as will. Every  

state, whatever it be, participates in the divine essence. The State is not the work of human art, only Reason 

could produce it." (Philosophy Of Right) 

For Hegel the individual is nothing, the individual has no rights, morality consists solely in following a 

leader. For the ambitious individual the rule is Senator Mansfield's maxim: "To get along you have to go 

along." 

Compare this to the spirit and letter of the Constitution of the United States: "We the people" grant the state 

some powers and reserve all others to the people. Separation of church and state is built into the U.S. 

Constitution, a denial of Hegel's "the State is God on earth." Yet, compare this legal requirement to the actions 

of The Order in the United States, The Group in England, the Illuminati in Germany, and the Politburo in 

Russia. For these elitists the State is supreme and a self-appointed elite running the State acts indeed as God on 

earth. 

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